Vol-7-No-2_Educational_Status_of_Muslims_and_Associated_Factors_in_Uttar_Pradesh

Educational Status of Muslims and Associated Factors in Uttar Pradesh: An Analysis of Household DataDownload

 Fahimuddin

Abstract

The government reports and research studies have come to the conclusion that Muslims have become educationally backward over the years in comparison with their Hindu counterparts. The Indian Council of Social Science Research sponsored a study to probe this problem further in the state of Uttar Pradesh to the Giri Institute of Development Studies, Lucknow. This paper is a part of this study. The study has found that much improvement has not taken place on the ground and there is still persistence of educational backwardness among Muslims at basic level of education when compared with the majority of Hindus. The targeted approach of the government incentives exclusively for Muslim students should be one of the policy options. Further, increasing the incentives like scholarships and involvement of Muslim community to arouse the feelings of importance of education among Muslim masses is equally crucial.  

Introduction

Educational backwardness among Muslims in India is now a well recognized fact. The figures published in censuses and several studies and commissions have brought into limelight the fact that Muslims have been lagging behind the Non-Muslims in every sphere of socio-economic development particularly in the field of education. With the launch of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in 2001 which aimed upon bridging the gender and social gaps and total enrollment and retention of all school-age children, it was expectation that Muslim children would be equally joining the mainstream education. The National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) have recently published data on the status of elementary education in India. The data showed that in eight Muslim concentrated states of the country, the enrollment of Muslim children at elementary level (up to 8th standard) was lagging behind their proportionate share in population during 2008-09. These states were Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal. At the all India level, percentage of Muslim enrollment in elementary education was 10.49 per cent versus their share of 13.3 per cent in population. This showed that Muslims were lagging behind as far as their enrollment in elementary level was concerned in those states where they were largely concentrated. The NUEPA data further showed that in fourteen Muslim concentrated States, the rate of enrollment of Muslim children in primary schools during 2007-08 was lower than the rate of enrollment of Schedule Castes (SC) and Other Backward Castes (OBC) children. In this way,  Muslim children were lagging behind SC and OBC children  as far as their enrollments in primary schools  was concerned in the states where Muslims were largely concentrated.  A review of enrollment of Muslim children vis-à-vis others in upper primary schools in fourteen Muslim concentrated states further indicated that the rate of enrollment of Muslim children in comparison with the rate of enrollment of SC and OBC children was comparatively lower in ten states which implied that in upper primary schools also enrollment of Muslims was lagging behind the underprivileged social classes. In view of the persistence of lower educational development among Muslims, the present study was planned to investigate the current status of educational attainment among Muslims in Uttar Pradesh and to find out the reasons for their relative educational backwardness. To be specific, the focus of the study is to  identify the factors responsible for the educational development of Muslim children and to  study their present status of enrollment, attendance, drop-out, achievement and gender parity levels in comparison with Non-Muslims children in primary, upper primary and higher secondary schools in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

Educational Status

Educational Status showed that level of illiteracy is highest among Muslim households (36.90 per cent) as against Hindu households (28.92 per cent). The level of illiteracy is more or less same within upper castes and OBC Muslims. The SC Hindus are better than Muslims in this regard. The educational status of Muslims with Primary education is better than their Hindus counter parts. However, as the level of education increased, educational attainment of Muslims showed a declining trend when compared with Hindus. The overall pattern indicated that as the level of education increased high dropout occurred among the Muslims, leaving them lagging behind Hindus in education attainments (Table-1).

Table-1: Educational Status of Sample Households

Religion / Castes

Educational Qualification

Illiterate

Primary

J.H.

H. S.

Inter

Graduate

Post Graduate

Total

Upper Caste Muslims

1180
(37.00)

1282
(40.20)

496
(15.55)

153
(4.80)

46
(1.44)

26
(0.82)

6
(0.19)

3189
(100.00)

OBC Muslims

1199
(36.79)

1361
(41.76)

455
(13.96)

161
(4.94)

36
(1.10)

38
(1.17)

9
(0.28)

3259
(100.00)

Total Muslims

2379
(36.90)

2643
(40.99)

951
(14.75)

314
(4.87)

82
(1.27)

64
(0.99)

15
(0.23)

6448
(100.00)

SC

309
(33.48)

349
(37.81)

204
(22.10)

43
(4.66)

12
(1.30)

5
(0.54)

1
(0.11)

923
(100.00)

OBC

315
(28.25)

410
(36.77)

232
(20.81)

96
(8.61)

30
(2.69)

28
(2.51)

4
(0.36)

115
(100.00)

Upper Castes

29
(13.18)

73
(33.18)

48
(21.82)

37
(16.82)

19
(8.65)

12
(5.45)

2
(8.90)

220
(100.00)

Total Hindus

653
(28.92)

832
(36.86)

484
(21.43)

176
(7.79)

61
(2.70)

45
(1.99)

7
(0.31)

2258
(100.00)

All

3032
(34.83)

3475
(39.92)

1435
(16.48)

490
(5.63)

143
(1.64)

109
(1.25)

22
(0.25)

8706
(100.00)

Source: Primary data based.

Enrollment of Muslim Children at Primary Level

The door to door survey of sample households was carried out to find out the enrollment of Muslim children who are in the age group of 4-11 years. The details have been shown in table-2. All children of this age group are supposed to be enrolled for primary schooling. However, the data showed that around 87 per cent of eligible boys and 86 per cent of eligible girls are enrolled in primary schools though this enrollment should have been 100 per cent. The data further showed that the enrollment of Muslim boys, girls and their total enrollment in primary classes is lower than Hindu boys and girls by around 4 per cent. Within the Muslims, the OBC boys and girls have lower enrollment in primary classes than the boys and girls of upper castes Muslims.  It is further reflected that SC boys and girls have higher rate of enrollment at primary level as compared to the Muslim boys and girls. Even the OBC Hindu boys and girls showed better rate of enrollment in comparison with OBC Muslim boys and girls. All this indicated that the Muslims are still lagging behind all other socio religious groups in seeking their enrollment for primary education.

Table-2: Enrollment of Children in Age Group of 4-11 Years
(Primary Level)

Religion/Castes

Total Children (4-11 Years)

Enrolled Children

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Upper
Caste  Muslims

417
(100.00)

368
(100.00)

785
(100.00)

366
(87.77)

316
(85.87)

682
(86.88)

OBC
Muslims

462
(100.00)

421
(100.00)

883
(100.00)

394
(85.28)

353
(83.85)

747
(84.60)

Total Muslims

879
(100.00)

789
(100.00)

1668
(100.00)

760
(86.46)

669
(84.79)

1429
(85.67)

SC

149
(100.00)

123
(100.00)

272
(100.00)

134
(89.93)

114
(92.68)

248
(91.18)

OBC

154
(100.00)

126
(100.00)

280
(100.00)

138
(89.61)

110
(87.30)

248
(88.57)

Upper Castes

30
(100.00)

26
(100.00)

56
(100.00)

28
(93.33)

21
(80.77)

49
(87.50)

Total Hindus

333
(100.00)

275
(100.00)

608
(100.00)

300
(90.09)

245
(89.09)

545
(89.63)

All

1212
(100.00)

1064
(100.00)

2276
(100.00)

1060
(87.46)

914
(85.90)

1974
(86.73)

Source:  Primary data based.

Reasons of Non-enrollment at Primary Level

The poverty has been reported to be the main reason of non-enrollment of children at primary level in every section of our society. While in case of 67 per cent Hindu households, poverty is responsibly, it is 92 per cent in respect of Muslim households.  Involvement in work, in household activities, lack of awareness and taking care of siblings are the factors reported by the households for the non-enrollment of children across different religion and castes but for the Muslim households these factors are more important than non-Muslim households. For OBC Muslims these factors are more important than upper castes Muslims. This goes to show that there are certain inhibiting factors working in the enrollment of children in primary schools but such factors play more crucial role among the Muslim households in general and in OBC Muslims in particular as table-3 reflects.

Table-3: Reasons of Non- Enrollment of Children at Primary Level
(Multiple Response)

Religion/Castes 1* 2 3 4 5
Upper Caste
Muslims
91.26 85.44 72.82 49.51 37.86
OBC
Muslims
93.38 86.03 75.73 51.47 36.03
Total Muslims 92.47 85.77 74.48 50.62 36.82
SC 83.33 70.83 58.33 45.83 20.83
OBC 81.25 68.75 53.12 40.63 28.13
Upper Castes 35.56 28.57 28.57
Total Hindus 66.98 65.08 52.38 38.09 22.22
All 80.56 81.46 69.86 48.01 33.77

Source:  Primary data based

*Codes: 1.Poverty 2. Working for income 3. Involvement in household activities 4. Lack of awareness about value of education 5. Care of sibling.

Drop out at Primary level of Education

The number of children who dropped out from their study during primary level of schooling, and their proportionate shares in total enrollment has been shown in table-4. It is evident that drop out is higher among Muslim children in comparison with Hindu children. Within the Muslims the drop out is higher among upper caste Muslims as compared to OBC Muslims. The dropout rate is also high among the SC students. The boys have higher dropout against the girls among the Muslim Students while opposite is the case among Hindu students. All this indicates that rate of drop out of Muslim boys and girls are higher in comparison with rate of dropout of Hindu boys and girls. Moreover, there is no dropout among the boys and girls of upper castes Hindus.

Table-4: Drop out Children during Primary Schooling

Religion/Castes

Boys

Girls

Total

Upper Caste Muslims

13
(3.55)

10
(3.16)

23
(3.37)

OBC
Muslims

7
(1.78)

7
(1.98)

14
(1.87)

Total Muslims

20
(2.63)

17
(2.54)

37
(2.59)

SC

3
(2.24)

3
(2.63)

6
(2.42)

OBC

1
(0.72)

2
(1.82)

3
(1.21)

Upper Castes

Total Hindus

4
(1.33)

5
(2.04)

9
(1.65)

All

24
(2.26)

22
(2.41)

46
(2.33)

Source: Primary data based.

Reasons of Dropout

The households have reported five reasons of dropping out of their children from studies as shown in table-5.  The reasons are more intense among Muslim households as compared with Hindu households. Similar within Muslims factors of drop out are more important among OBC Muslims than upper caste Muslims. In this way, drop out is a general phenomenon in our society but its causal factors are more sever among Muslims than Hindus.


Table-5: Reasons of Drop out of Children at Primary Level
(Multiple Response)

Religion/Castes

1*

2

3

4

5

6

Upper Caste
Muslims

91.30

73.91

43.48

39.13

30.43

17.39

OBC
Muslims

100.00

78.57

42.86

21.43

21.43

7.14

Total Muslims

94.59

75.68

43.24

32.43

27.03

13.51

SC

83.33

50.00

33.33

33.33

33.33

16.67

OBC

66.67

66.67

33.33

Upper Castes

Total Hindus

77.78

55.56

33.33

22.22

22.22

11.11

All

91.30

71.74

41.30

30.43

26.09

13.04

Source:  Primary data based.
*Codes: 1.Poverty 2. Working for income 3.Involvement in household activities 4. Lack of  awareness of value of education 5. Care of  siblings   6. Poor standard of education.

Enrollment of Children at Upper Primary Level

The table-6 shows that enrollment of children is generally 83 per cent at the level of all social groups. Among Muslims, it is lower than the Hindus and even lower than the SCs which are considered to be the least developed community.  The girls enrollment among the Muslims is generally at par with Hindus but lower than SCs and OBCs.  Within Muslims, marginal difference in enrollment is evident between upper caste Muslims and OBC Muslims.

Table-6: Enrollment of Children in Age Group of 11-14 Years
(Upper Primary Level)

Religion/Castes

Total Children

Enrolled  Children

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Upper Caste
Muslims

159
(100.00)

93
(100.00)

252
(100.00)

134
(84.28)

75
(80.65)

209
(82.94)

OBC
Muslims

135
(100.00)

130
(100.00)

265
(100.00)

112
(82.96)

104
(80.00)

216
(81.51)

Total Muslims

294
(100.00)

223
(100.00)

517
(100.00)

246
(83.67)

179
(80.27)

425
(82.20)

SC

37
(100.00)

27
(100.00)

64
(100.00)

32
(86.49)

23
(85.19)

55
(85.94)

OBC

56
(100.00)

33
(100.00)

89
(100.00)

49
(87.50)

28
(84.85)

77
(86.52)

Upper Castes

18
(100.00)

16
(100.00)

34
(100.00)

16
(88.89)

12
(75.00)

28
(82.35)

Total Hindus

111
(100.00)

76
(100.00)

187
(100.00)

97
(87.39)

63
(82.89)

160
(85.56)

All

405
(100.00)

299
(100.00)

704
(100.00)

343
(84.69)

242
(80.94)

585
(83.10)

Source:  Primary data based.

Reasons of Non-enrollment at Upper Primary Level

At upper primary level, poverty is again the most important reason of non-enrollment of children at the combined level of all social groups as evident in table-7.  The poverty as factor of non-enrollment is relatively more important for the Muslims as compared with Hindus. However, involvement in household activities emerged as the next important reason at the aggregate level while for the Muslim children the second most important reason of non-enrollment is their engagement in income generating activities. This goes to indicate that due to comparatively lower income level, Muslim children are forced to seek income providing activities and hence in process leave their schooling. Though the number of such children is quite low but still it is higher when compared with other social groups.

Table-7: Reasons of Non- Enrollment of Children at Upper Primary Level
(Multiple Response)

Religion/Castes

1*

2

3

4

5

Upper Caste
Muslims

83.72

65.12

72.09

46.51

37.21

OBC
Muslims

87.76

79.59

77.55

67.35

51.02

Total Muslims

85.87

72.83

75.00

51.09

41.30

SC

77.78

55.56

66.67

55.56

22.22

OBC

66.67

33.33

100.00

33.33

83.33

Upper Castes

66.67

33.33

50.00

50.00

33.33

Total Hindus

70.37

40.74

55.56

37.04

33.33

All

82.35

65.56

69.75

47.90

39.49

Source:  Primary data based
*Codes: 1.Poverty 2.Working for income 3.Involvement in household activities 4.Lack of awareness about value of education 5. Care of sibling.

Drop out at Upper Primary level of Education

At upper primary level, 6 per cent of enrolled children are found to have dropped out and dropout is roughly two percentage points higher among Muslim students than the Hindus students. The rate of dropout is higher among the girls of all social groups.  When compared within social groups, the dropout is found to be highest among Muslim students as compared with the students of other social groups as evident from table-8.

Table-8: Drop out of Children during Upper Primary Schooling

Religion/Castes

Boys

Girls

Total

Upper Caste
Muslims

9
(6.77)

7
(9.33)

16
(7.66)

OBC
Muslims

8
(7.14)

8
(7.69)

16
(7.40)

Total Muslims

17
(6.91)

15
(8.38)

32
(7.53)

SC

1
(3.13)

1
(4.35)

2
(3.64)

OBC

1
(2.04)

1
(3.57)

2
(2.60)

Upper Castes

Total Hindus

2
(2.06)

2
(3.17)

4
(2.50)

All

19
(5.54)

17
(7.02)

36
(6.15)

Source: Primary data based.

Reasons of Drop out at Upper Primary Level

Five reasons have been given by the households for the dropout of their children. Though the poverty is the most important reason but need of work, engagement in household activities and taking care of sibling are the other important reasons of dropout of children as shown in table-9. These reasons are common across all the social groups but predominate in case of Muslim households.

Table-9: Reasons of Drop out of Children at Upper Primary Level
(Multiple Response)

Religion/Castes

1*

2

3

4

5

Upper Caste
Muslims

81.25

68.75

68.75

68.75

56.25

OBC
Muslims

81.25

75.00

81.25

68.75

56.25

Total Muslims

81.25

71.88

75.00

68.75

56.25

SC

100.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

100.00

OBC

50.00

50.00

50.00

Upper Castes

Total Hindus

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

All

77.78

69.44

72.22

66.67

55.56

Source:  Primary data based.
*Code of Reasons: 1.Poverty, 2. working for income, 3.Involvement in household activities, 4.Care of Sibling, 5. Low level of teaching.

Enrollment of Children at High School Level

The information relating to enrolment of high school age children was obtained from the sample households and tabulated in table-10. The table shows that 79 per cent children are found to be enrolled at the combined level of all socio-religious groups.  The enrollment of girls is lower than that of boys. When compared within religious groups, marginally lower level of enrollment is evident among Muslim boys as compared with Hindu boys. The same pattern is with Muslim girls when compared with Hindu Girls. Within the Muslims, OBC children  have lower enrollment than upper castes children.

 

Table-10: Enrollment of Children in High School Age Group

Religion/Castes

Total Children

Enrolled Children

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Upper Caste Muslim

48
(100.00)

39
(100.00)

87
(100.00)

39
(81.25)

29
(74.36)

68
(78.16)

OBC
Muslims

71
(100.00)

47
(100.00)

118
(100.00)

56
(78.87)

35
(74.47)

91
(77.12)

Total Muslims

119
(100.00)

86
(100.00)

205
(100.00)

95
(79.83)

64
(74.42)

159
(77.56)

SC

25
(100.00)

13
(100.00)

38
(100.00)

20
(80.00)

10
(76.92)

30
(78.94)

OBC

36
(100.00)

17
(100.00)

53
(100.00)

30
(83.33)

14
(82.35)

44
(83.02)

Upper Caste

5
(100.00)

3
(100.00)

8
(100.00)

4
(80.00)

2
(66.67)

6
(75.00)

Total Hindus

66
(100.00)

33
(100.00)

99
(100.00)

54
(81.81)

26
(78.79)

80
(80.81)

All

185
(100.00)

119
(100.00)

304
(100.00)

149
(80.54)

90
(75.63)

239
(78.62)

Source:  Primary data based.

Reasons of Non-Enrollment at High School Level

The respondents have reported four reasons of non-enrollment of their wards in high school as shown in table-11.  The most important reason is the engagement in works for earning. The other is the involvement in household activities, followed by the migration and caring of sibling. All these factors are found to be more important among Muslim households as compared with Hindu households. Even within Muslims, these factors are relatively more important for OBC Muslims as against the upper caste Muslims.


Table-11: Reasons of Non- Enrollment at High School Level
(Multiple Responses)

Religion/Caste

1

2

3

4

Upper Caste
Muslims

84.21

68.42

36.84

26.32

OBC
Muslims

92.59

70.37

37.04

29.63

Total Muslims

89.13

69.57

36.96

28.26

SC

87.50

75.00

37.50

12.50

OBC

66.67

44.44

22.22

Upper Castes

50.00

100.00

100.00

Total Hindus

73.68

63.16

26.32

15.79

All

84.62

67.69

33.85

24.62

Source:  Primary data based.
*Code of Reasons: 1.Working for income 2. Involvement in household activities 3.Migration 4.Care of Sibling

Dropout at High School Level

The household survey has indicated that around 6 per cent students leave their studies at high school level at the combined level of all social groups. There is no major difference between boys and girls in this regard.  While examining the comparative scenario between social groups, it became evident that those left schooling at high school level, their percentage is higher in case of Muslims (8 per cent) as against Hindus (5 per cent). The percentage of high school leaving Muslim girls is much higher (8 per cent) in comparison with Hindu girls (4 per cent). In this way, higher percentage of Muslim students leave their high school studies than the Hindu students and the larger number of Muslim girls leave high school than Hindu girls (Table-12).


Table-12: Drop out of Children during High School

Religion/Caste

Boys

Girls

Total

Upper Caste Muslims

2
(5.13)

2
(6.90)

4
(5.88)

OBC
Muslims

4
(7.14)

3
(8.57)

7
(7.69)

Total Muslims

6
(6.32)

5
(7.81)

11
(6.92)

SC

1
(5.00)

1
(3.33)

OBC

2
(6.67)

1
(7.14)

3
(6.82)

Upper Castes

Total Hindus

3
(5.56)

1
(3.85)

4
(5.00)

All

9
(6.04)

6
(6.67)

15
(6.28)

Source:  Primary data based

Reasons of Dropout

It was tried to know why those students who were studying at high school level leave their schooling in between. The reasons given by the head of sample households are shown in table-3.13. The foremost reason is that the need of working which forces the students to leave their education at High school level. All the reasons as shown in table-13 appear to be more important for Muslim students as compared with their Hindu counterparts.


Table-13: Reasons of Drop out of Children at High School Level
(Multiple Response)

Religion/Castes

1

2

3

4

Upper Caste
Muslims

75.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

OBC
Muslims

42.86

42.86

14.29

Total Muslims

54.55

45.45

27.27

18.18

SC

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

OBC

33.33

Upper Castes

Total Hindus

25.00

All

46.67

33.33

20.00

13.33

Source:  Primary data based.
*Code of Reasons: 1.Working   2. Involvement in household activities 3.Migration 4.Care of Sibling

Incentives Available to Students at Primary Level

The different types of incentives are provided by the government to the students of different social groups at different level of schooling. These incentives are scholarships, free uniforms, school bag and MDM. It was tried to access that how these incentives benefitted the students of different social groups. The details have been shown in table-14. The table shows that 43 per cent Muslim students received scholarship as against 69 per cent Hindu students. The free books were given to 86 per cent Muslim students as against 90 per cent Hindu students. The gap between Muslim and Hindu beneficiary students of free uniform was of 8 per cent. In case of MDM and school bag sizeable gap was not noticed. As far boys and girls are concerned such type of glaring gap was evident between two social groups.


Table-14:  Incentives Available to Students at Primary Level

Students

Incentives

Muslim Children

Hindu Children

All Children

Boys

Scholarships

265
(34.87)

216
(72.00)

481
(45.38)

Free Books

608
(80.00)

270
(90.00)

878
(82.83)

Free Uniform

38
(5.00)

24
(8.00)

62
(5.85)

MDM

592
(77.89)

249
(83.00)

841
(79.34)

Girls

Scholarships

350
(46.10)

162
(66.12)

512
(56.02)

Free Books

623
(81.98)

219
(89.39)

842
(92.12)

Free Uniform

315
(47.09)

154
(62.86)

469
(51.31)

MDM

570
(75.00)

197
(80.41)

767
(83.92)

School bags

145
(19.10)

67
(27.35)

212
(23.19)

Total

Scholarships

615
(43.03)

378
(69.36)

993
(50.30)

Free Books

1231
(86.14)

489
(89.72)

1720
(87.13)

Free Uniform

353
(24.70)

178
(32.66)

531
(28.90)

MDM

1162
(81.31)

446
(81.83)

1608
(81.46)

School bags

145
(10.15)

67
(12.29)

212
(10.74)

Source: Primary data based.

Incentives Available to Students at Upper Primary Level

The incentives available to students at upper primary level indicated that the scholarships are received by 42 per cent Muslim students as against 73 per cent Hindu students. It is further evident that 4 per cent less Muslim students received free text books as against Hindu students. In case of free uniform and MDM the gap between Muslim beneficiary and Hindu beneficiary students is evident. But as far the receipt of free school bag is concerned, 10 per cent Muslim girl students received school bags as against 12.50 per cent Hindu girl students. In this way, the proportion of Muslim students getting different incentives at upper primary level was found to be far lower than the Hindu students (Table-15).

Table-15:  Incentives Available to Students at Upper Primary Level

Students

Facilities

Muslim Children

Hindu Children

All Children

Boys

Scholarships

91
(36.99)

72
(74.22)

163
(47.52)

Free Books

201
(81.71)

82
(84.53)

283
(82.51)

Free Uniforms

15
(6.10)

9
(9.27)

24
(7.00)

MDM

192
(78.05)

81
(83.50)

273
(79.59)

School bags

Girls

Scholarships

87
(48.60)

44
(69.84)

131
(54.13)

Free Books

148
(82.68)

56
(85.71)

204
(84.30)

Free Uniforms

86
(48.04)

42
(66.67)

128
(52.89)

MDM

136
(75.98)

51
(80.95)

187
(77.27)

School bags

44
(24.58)

20
(31.75)

64
(26.45)

Total

Scholarships

178
(41.88)

116
(72.50)

249
(42.56)

Free Books

349
(82.12)

138
(86.25)

487
(83.25)

Free Uniforms

101
(23.76)

51
(31.88)

152
(25.98)

MDM

328
(77.18)

132
(82.50)

460
(78.63)

School bags

44
(10.35)

20
(12.50)

64
(10.94)

Source: Primary data based.

 Availability of Scholarships to Students at High School

Scholarships availed by the students at High school level belonging to boys and girls of Muslims and Hindus have been shown in table-16. The table shows that the percentage of Muslim boys getting scholarships is 9 per cent less as compared to Hindu boys. Similarly, Muslim girls getting scholarships is 7 per cent less than the Hindu girls. On the whole, Muslim students getting scholarship are 10 per cent less as compared with the percentage of Hindu students getting scholarship at the high school level.

Table-16: Scholarships Available to Students at High School Level

Students

Muslim

Hindu

All

Boys

13
(13.68)

12
(22.22)

25
(16.78)

Girls

10
(15.63)

6
(23.08)

16
(17.78)

Total

23
(14.47)

18
(22.50)

41
(17.15)

Source: Primary data based.


Type of Educational Institutions where Students Study: Rural Areas

In table-17, students of rural areas across social groups studying in different type of educational institutions have been shown. It is evident that majority of all students study in government schools followed by study in private and government aided schools and then Madarsas.  But when we compare this pattern across different social groups, it becomes evident that the percentage of Muslim students studying in government schools is  higher as compared with Hindu students who are studying in government schools. On the other hand, percentage of Muslim students in private schools is lower when compared with the Hindu students. Even the higher percentage of OBC Muslims is studying in government schools. The inference can be drawn that since the schooling in government institutions is relatively economical, Muslims have greater preference for it. The poor SC Hindus too have greater preference in sending their wards to government schools. It may also be due to cost factor.

Table-17: Type of Educational Institutions where Students are Studying: Rural Areas

Religion/ Caste

Government

Private

Aided

Madrasa

Total

Upper Caste
Muslims

243
(64.97)

87
(23.26)

32
(8.57)

12
(3.20)

374
(100.00)

OBC
Muslims

262
(65.17)

92
(22.89)

34
(8.46)

14
(3.48)

402
(100.00)

Total
Muslims

505
(65.08)

179
(23.07)

66
(8.51)

26
(3.34)

776
(100.00)

SC

82
(62.12)

36
(27.27)

14
(10.61)

132
(100.00)

OBC

97
(61.01)

46
(28.93)

16
(10.06)

159
(100.00)

Upper Castes

12
(57.14)

6
(28.57)

3
(14.29)

21
(100.00)

Total
Hindus

191
(61.22)

88
(28.21)

33
(10.57)

312
(100.00)

All

696
(63.97)

267
(24.54)

99
(9.10)

26
(2.39)

1088
(100.00)

Source: Primary data based.

Type of Educational Institutions where Students Study: Urban Areas

In urban areas also, near about 60 per cent of all Muslim students are found to be going to government schools as against 46 per cent of Hindu students. It is evident from table-18 that 12 per cent less Muslim students are going to private schools when compared with the Hindu students. In this way, cost consideration in education is equally crucial for Muslims in urban areas of Uttar Pradesh

Table-18: Type of Educational Institutions where Students is Studying:
Urban Areas

Religion/ Castes

Government

Private

Aided

Madrasa

Total

Upper Caste
Muslims

44
(59.46)

18
(24.32)

7
(9.46)

5
(6.76)

74
(100.00)

OBC
Muslims

18
(56.25)

8
(25.00)

3
(9.38)

3
(9.37)

32
(100.00)

Total
Muslims

62
(58.49)

26
(24.53)

10
(9.43)

8
(7.55)

106
(100.00)

SC

4
(50.00)

3
(37.50)

1
(12.50)

8
(100.00)

OBC

8
(47.06)

6
(35.29)

3
(17.65)

17
(100.00)

Upper Castes

7
(43.75)

6
(37.50)

3
(18.75)

16
(100.00)

Total
Hindus

19
(46.34)

15
(36.59)

7
(17.07)

41
(100.00)

All

81
(55.10)

41
(27.89)

17
(11.56)

8
(5.45)

147
(100.00)

Source: Primary data based.

Type of Educational Institutions where Students Study: Total

When the data of rural and urban areas is combined as has been done in table-19, the scenario does not change much. A general trend emerges which indicates that higher percentage of Muslim students go to government schools for their education while lesser percentage of Hindu students go to government schools. The opposite trend becomes visible in case of Muslim children found to be going to private schools. Around 3 per cent of Muslim students also go to Madarsas.  Thus, it seems that due to poor economic condition and cost factor, Muslims have greater preference for government schools despite the fact the government schools are considered to be imparting low quality of education.

Table-19: Type of Educational Institutions Where Students is Studying: Total

Religion/ Castes

Government

Private

Aided

Madrasa

Total

Upper Caste
Muslims

287
(64.06)

105
(23.44)

39
(8.71)

17
(3.79)

448
(100.00)

OBC
Muslims

280
(64.53)

100
(23.04)

37
(8.51)

17
(3.92)

434
(100.00)

Total
Muslims

567
(64.29)

205
(23.24)

76
(8.62)

34
(3.85)

882
(100.00)

SC

86
(61.43)

39
(27.86)

15
(10.71)

140
(100.00)

OBC

105
(59.65)

52
(29.55)

19
(10.80)

176
(100.00)

Upper Castes

19
(51.35)

12
(32.43)

6
(16.22)

37
(100.00)

Total
Hindus

210
(59.49)

103
(29.18)

40
(11.33)

353
(100.00)

All

777
(62.91)

308
(24.95)

116
(9.39)

34
(2.75)

1235
(100.00)

Source: Primary data based.

Conclusions and Suggestions

The education is the prime indicator of development. The data of the NCAER showed that while 70.3 percent of Hindu Children in age group 6-14 go to government schools, the percentage of Muslim Children going to government schools is 49.5 percent. The National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) have recently published data on the status of elementary education in India. The data showed that in eight Muslim concentrated states of the country, the enrollment of Muslim children at elementary level (up to 8th standard) was lagging behind their proportionate share in population during 2008-09. These states were Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal. At the all India level, percentage of Muslim enrollment in elementary education was 10.49 per cent versus their share of 13.3 per cent in population. This showed that Muslims were lagging behind as far as their enrollment in elementary level was concerned in those states where they were largely concentrated. The NUEPA data further showed that in fourteen Muslim concentrated States, the rate of enrollment of Muslim children in primary schools during 2007-08 was lower than the rate of enrollment of Schedule Castes (SC) and Other Backward Castes (OBC) children. In this way,  Muslim children were lagging behind SC and OBC children  as far as their enrollments in primary schools  was concerned in the states where Muslims were largely concentrated.  In view of the seriousness of the problem, household survey was done to understand the problem and the following conclusions have been arrived at:

  • > The illiteracy is found to be highest among Muslim households (37 per cent) versu Hindu households (29 per cent).
  • > The rate of enrolment of Muslim children at primary level of education is higher as against the Hindu children but as the level of education increases, enrolment of Muslim   children decreases due to relatively higher drop out.
  • > Poverty has been reported to be the main factor of drop out of Muslim children. While 92 per cent of Muslim households find poverty as responsible factor of drop, the same has been found by 67 per cent of Hindu households.
  • > The engagement in earning activities is also the important reason of drop our of the Muslim children which has been reported by 76 per cent of the sample Muslim households as against 56 per cent of Hindu households who find that their children drop out due to their engagement in earning activities.
  • > The similar situation has been found at the upper primary level and high schools levels.
  • > The various types of incentives have been made available by the government to the students of elementary level. These are scholarships, free books, free uniforms and MDM. The beneficiary of these schemes have been found to be comparatively lower among Muslim students as against Hindu students who have been the beneficiaries.
  • > All the indicators of educational development applied in the study go the prove that there are overall educational backwardness among Muslim students studying from primary to high school levels.
  • > This necessitates a targeted policy approach   for Muslim students in case of incentives schemes so that they could be encouraged to study further.
  • > The role of the community cannot be overlooked. It is the great responsibility of the Muslim community that the value of education should be propagated extensively among the Muslim community and community efforts should be made in this direction.

 

References

  • Ahmad, Imtiyaz (1973), Caste and Social Stratification among Muslims in India, Manohar Publications, New Delhi.
  • Ahmad, Zeyauddin (1977), Caste Elements Among the Muslims of Bihar, in Harjindr Singh ed., Caste Elements Among Non-Hindus in India, National.
  • Bhatty, Zarina (1996), Social Stratification Among Muslims in India, Viking.
  • Engineer, Asgar Ali (1991), Socio-educational Backwardness of Muslims in India, Institute of Islamic Studies, Bombay, Occasional Paper, May, No. 5, Vol. 7.
  • Gupta, Dipankar (2000), Interrogating Caste: Unerstanding Hierarchy and Difference in Indian Society, Pengiun Books, New Delhi.
  • Mahmood, Syed Tahir (2006), From William Hunter to Rajinder Sachar Reports but no Results. The Milli Gazette, New Delhi.
  • Mehrotra, Santosh (2012), Social Inclusion without Inclusion: The Paradoxes of India Educational Growth, DP Dhar Memorial Lecture, Giri Institute of Development Studies, 19th October, 2012.
  • Mondal, Seik Rahim (1994), Dynamics of Muslim Society, Inter India Publications, New Delhi.
  • Sachar Committee (2006), Report, Social, Educational and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India, Government of India.
  • Singh, Ajit.K and Alam, Mohd. Tauheed (2012), Relative Socio-Educational Conditions of Muslims in rural U.P., working Paper, Giri institute of Development Studies, Lucknow.
  • Thorat, Sukhadeo (2006), Paying the Social Debt, Economic  and Political Weekly, June, 17.

 

 Fahimuddin is Professor at Giri Institute of Development Studies, Lucknow, Email: drfahim2007@yahoo.com