Vol-8-No-2_Impact_of_Demographic_Change_on_the_Muslim_Community

Impact of Demographic Change on the Muslim Community of Tripura Download

 Mijanur Rahaman

Abstract

Tripura is a small state of Indian Union situated in the North-Eastern part of the Indian sub-continent. The area of Tripura, in ancient time, was said to be very extensive. The present territorial area of Tripura is 10491square kilometers. Of the total area, 6, 06,150 hectares, i.e. near about 60% are forest areas. It has a geographical area of 10,491.69 sq. km. The population of our State is 36,71,2032 out of that the population belongs to minorities is 3, 35,135 i.e. 9.12% of total population of this State. The breakup of the population are Muslims 3, 28,870 (8.96%), Christian (Non ST) 2,322 (0.06%), Buddhist 3,647 (0.09%), Jain 262 (0.007%) Sikhs 34 (0.0009%) as per the census of the year 2011. Total 2, 94,837 minorities are residing in rural areas and 40,298 are in urban areas. It  is  difficult  to find  out  the  exact  date  of  growth  of Muslim  population  before  beginning  of  the  census operation  in  1881.   However, Muslims of Tripura are the ancient inhabitant of this state. Demographic change in Tripura affects the life of the Muslims community of this state. The number of Muslims which was 20.1% in 1960 came down to 06.6% in 1970. Thousands of Muslims were sent in the Bangladesh and at the same time due to the communal riots in Bangladesh thousands of refugees came here to take shelter and became permanent settlers. Yet in certain part of the state a very small section of educated and comparatively well to do Muslim population are living and another section of Muslims are very poor. They became marginalized community of this state and their position has come down below the other marginalized community of this state. Muslims are now backward in social, political and economic field.

Introduction

Demographics are the quantifiable statistics of a given population. Demographics are also used to identify the study of quantifiable subsets within a given population which characterize that population at a specific point in time. A word derived from the ancient Greek, “demography” literally means “describing the population”. And that’s precisely what demographers do: they describe the size, composition and structure of populations. The term “demographic change” is most commonly used to refer to shifts in population structure that have emerged in many industrialized nations including Germany since the 1970s, chiefly as a result of three major developments: declining birth rates, longer life expectancy and increasing immigration. These changes present many challenges, but many opportunities, as well.

However, the state of Tripura experienced a huge number of migration from nearby states and areas also which resulted in its big demographic change. Tribals who were the original inhabitant of this state became minority after 1960. Tripura’s tribes lost their majority share of the population as long ago as 1960, when Bengalis took their place. Tripura’s Bengalis are Hindus however, not Muslims, many of whom came to India as refugees, after Partition in 1947 and in the 1970s, during Bangladesh’s war of independence from Pakistan.

The original inhabitants of Tripura were tribals, known for their tolerance and passive obedience to the maharajas of the Manikya dynasty for centuries.  Historically,  the  Hindu  rulers  of  Tripura’s  Manikya  dynasty  had always  encouraged  the  immigration  of  and  settlement  of  non-tribals, especially  Bengalis  to  Tripura.  Rajmala authenticates the fact that Ratna Manikya (1464-1468) was the first to ‘settle 4000 Bengalis in four places’ in Tripura.

While the immigration of the Brahmins and other upper castes was  encouraged to enhance the status of the state and to run its administration,  encouragement  to  lower-caste  people  and  landless  Muslim  cultivators  or  sharecroppers  from  the  then  East  Bengal  was  only  for  reclaiming  fallow  lands,  to  increase revenue. The rulers were so desperate to bring the land   under tillage that they even introduced the jangal abadi system in this land abundant and thinly populated State. In  the  reign  of  Bir  Bikram  Kishore  Manikya,  the  first  batch  of Hindu  Bengali  refugees  received  by  Tripura  fled  East  Bengal  fearing communal violence after  the  unprecedented  Raipur  (Dhaka)  riot  of  1941.  Around 15,000 people entered Tripura. Some of them were jiratia prajas of the Chakla Roshanabad estate and hence subjects of Tripura state, in one way or the other. Most of them were offered permanent rehabilitation either in the form of employment or settlement on freehold land. A  huge  number  of  refugees  migrated  to  Tripura  from  Noakhali district  and  Chandpur  subdivision  of  Tipperah  District  (Comilla)  when horrific communal riots broke out as a counter-effect of ‘Direct Action Day’ declared by the Muslim League in Calcutta on 16 August 1946. About 175,000 Hindu Bengali refugees crossed the border and took shelter in Tripura from adjoining districts after 1950. It claimed that in March-June 1950, 3,866 families had been settled on 23,450 acres. However,  the  Tripura  government  stopped  the  process  of  official registration  of  refugees  from  1  May  1958. Still migrants continued to trickle in till 1958. But another refugee exodus began from the middle of 1963 due to huge riots in Khulna, Jessore and other districts of East Pakistan. The problem was aggravated after the riots of 1964. Refugee registration, which had stopped for the first time with effect from 1 May 1958, resumed in 1964 and finally stopped on 26 March 1971. Again, during the period of the Bangladesh War, refugee migration increased exponentially: the number of refugees (14, 16,491) that came to Tripura  in  1971  was  a  little  less  than  the  state’s  total  population (15,36,342).

Table-1
Population History of Tripura

Year-AD Total Population % of  Increase Native Tripuri Others+ Bengali % of Tripuri % of Others + Bengali
1881 95,637 83,257 12,380 87.06 12.94
1891 1,37,442 43 1,04,114 33,328 75.75 24.25
1901 1,73,325 26 1,29,431 43,894 74.68 25.52
1911 2,29,613 32.48 1,47,950 81,653 64.34 35.66
1921 3,04,437 31.59 2,08,052 96,386 68.34 31.66
1931 3,82,450 25.63 2,68,067 1,14,383 70.09 29.91
1941 5,31,010 34.14 3,18,359 1,94,651 62.06 37.94
1951 6,39,028 24.56 3,10,946 3,28,082 48.65 51.35
1961 11,42,005 78.71 3,60,070 7,81,935 31.55 68.47
1971 15,56,342 36.28 4,50,544 11,05,798 28.95 71.05
1981 20,53,058 31.92 5,83,920 14,69,138 28.44 71.56
1991 27,57,205 25.54 8,53,920 19,03,860 30.95 69.05
2001 31,91,168 15.74 10,69,622 21,21,546 33.52 66.48

Above table shows how Bengali immigrants from outside Tripura made the majority tribal into minority.

Impact of Demographic Change on Muslim

The Muslims of Tripura proved themselves as politically conscious since many years before the merging of Tripura with Independent India . Though they belong to the peasantry background, the upper section of the community involved themselves into the politics and administration of Tripura has proved that they are political activists also. Since the princely period, they involved themselves in the decision-making functions of the state. But the demographic change altered their life style.

Like the tribal, Muslim community of Tripura suffered due to demographic change. The historical background of the Muslims in Tripura shows that they are not original inhabitants of the land but settled in the early medieval period. One of the earlier kings of Tripura brought a number of Muslim families along with other Bengali castes of Hindu communities from the Muslim Sultan of Bengal and he arranged their permanent settlement in all over Tripura.  King of Tripura encouraged Muslim cultivators in large numbers during the end of 17th century. Since then from time to time, the Muslim Bengalis like the major Hindu Bengali inhabitants migrated from the plane lands adjacent to the present Tripura which was regarded as District of Tipperah or State of Hill Tipperah.

According to the census of 1891, the people of Tripura were divided into two parts, i) Bengali and ii) Loutya race (Tribal). Bengalis are divided into three branches, e.g. Hindus, Muslims and Christians. Thus people  inhabiting  the  small  hilly  land  of  Tripura  are  comprised  of  three  major  groups  of  population:  Tribal,  Bengali  and  others.  Tribal are called the indigenous people of the land. Bengalis-  both  Hindu  and  Muslims are  the  permanent  immigrants  for  several centuries  i.e. since  the  historical  and  medieval  period.  Others comprise of people came from different regions of India and also outside of India. Muslims population in Tripura during 1874-75 was in second position after the Tribals who had first position and Manipuri, Hindus, Christians 3rd, 4th and 5th position respectively.

Table-2
Different Communities of Tripura (1874-75)

Sl.No. Name of the community Population
Tribe 42345
Muslim 14225
Manipuri 7045
Hindu 4339
Christians 112
Not classified(others) 173
Total 74242

At present the population of the State is 36,71,032 out of that the population belongs to all minorities is 3, 35,135 i.e. 9.12% of total population of this State. The breakup of the minority population are Muslims 3, 28,870 (8.96%), Christian (Non ST) 2,322 (0.06%), Buddhist 3,647 (0.09%), Jain 262 (0.007%) Sikhs 34 (0.0009%) as per the census 2011. Total 2,94,837 minorities are residing in rural areas and 40,298 are in urban areas.

Muslims of Tripura are backward in all the aspects of their life. Demographic change in the Muslim population is one of the causes for their socio-economic position to remain  at the bottom of social heap. The number of Muslims which was 20.1% in 1960 came down to 06.6% in 1970. Thousands of Muslims were sent to  Bangladesh and at the same time due to the communal riots in Bangladesh thousands of refugees came here to take shelter and became permanent settlers. Yet, in certain part of the state a very small section of educated and comparatively well to do Muslim population are living and another section of Muslims is very poor.

Table-3
Muslim Population

Year Total Population Muslim Population %  of  Muslim Population
1901 173325 45323 26.15%
1911 229613 65953 28.72%
1921 304437 82288 27.03%
1931 382450 103720 27.12%
1941 513010 123570 24.09%
1951 639029 136950 21.43%
1961 1142005 230002 20.14%
1971 1556342 103962 6.68%
1981 2053058 138529 6.75%
1991 2757205 196495 7.13%
2001 3199203 254442 7.95%
2011 36,71,032 3, 28,870 8.96%

Source: Census of India (Tripura) 1991 & Trend of Muslim population (Census Reports 1931-1971)

Figure-1

However, large-scale demographic movement continues to take place in the NE, resulting in demographic imbalance in this state. At the time of partition, in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) the Hindu population was 25.6 percent. It got reduced to 14 percent in 1991 and today it has come down to terrible 7 percent. Most of the Bengali people of Tripura were originally inhabitant of East Pakistan. During the first half of the freedom movement of Bangladesh (1971) total refuges in Tripura from Bangladesh were 1221754 as stated in the table-4.

Table-4
Total Refuges in Tripura from Bangladesh

Category Population
Local people 1559000
Refugee 1221754
Total shibir 36
Unit 382
Peoples in shibir 692154
Personal adjustment 150000
With relative 389600
Sent outside the state 25440
Reserved 75000
Expenditure up to August Rs. 45crores
Treatment Total 360 doctors and health stuff

Source- Roy, Bidhan, “Agartala Ekattuor” (2013) (Bengali), Parijat Prakashani, Dhaka-1100, p.17

Even when Pakistan surrendered to Indian army, there were more than 16 lakh refugees in Tripura from Bangladesh. However, large-scale demographic movement continues to take place in the NE, resulting in demographic imbalance in this state. At the time of partition, in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) the Hindu population was 25.6 percent. It got reduced to 14 percent in 1991 and today it has come down to terrible 7 percent. Most of the Bengali people of Tripura were originally inhabitant of East Pakistan.

However, this demographic change influences the life of the people. Their number reduced and the Muslims became backward in this state. They are backward socially, economically and politically.

Educational Scenario

Owing to lack of education, the Indian Muslims lagged far behind in every walk of life. Due to lack of high qualifications, Muslims do not get jobs in many fields in comparisons with others. Muslims are found little in professional, vocational and scientific courses. Madrassa education is one which follows traditional curriculua.

Dropout rate in class I-X among the Muslims is 74.27 percent in govt. schools compared to National Average of 62.58 percent.

Figure-2

SOURCE-GOI: Annual work plan and budget on MDM 2007-08

The literacy rate among the Muslims is 49.5%. Male literacy rate is 59% and female literacy rate is 41%. Muslim literacy is lower than General literacy rate (65.5%). Their female literacy in compare to male is insignificant.

Figure-3

Source-Census 2001

In Tripura Muslims students’ participation is low in higher education. In each college, it is seen that the number of Muslim student is very low. Girls’ position in colleges is less than 1.5% where boys’ position is 3.6%.

Table-5
Muslims Student’s Enrolment in Colleges

Total Students Muslims Students
Total- Male Female Total- Male Female %
29607 17861 11746 1445 1066 379 4.8

Source-data collected from 22 colleges

In professional colleges, it is seen that the number of Muslim participation is very low i.e. 1.04% and girl’s position is 0.3% of the total.

Table-6
Muslims students in professional colleges

Total students Muslims
Name of colleges Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total %
Govt. College of Arts and Crafts 37 92 129 01 01 2
Govt. Law College 86 74 160 3 0 3
Womens Politechnic, Hapania 76 76 1 1
Dhalai District Politechnic 182 52 234 2 2
Tripura Institute of Technology
1.Degree Level Students
2.Diploma Level Students
660 233 893 5 3 8
388 229 617 5 2 7
Govt. College of Art and Craft 87 92 179 1 1
Total 1440 848 2288 17 7 24 1.04

Source-data collected from 22 colleges

Student participation in university proves their backwardness in education. The number of Muslim girl participation is lower than the boys.

Figure-4
Muslims students’ enrolment in Tripura University

Source-SPIO, T.U. 2012

Figure-5

Source-SPIO, T.U. 2012

From the above discussion, it is seen that educationally Muslims are backward both at school level and also at higher level. Due to the lack of education Muslim participation in economic and political field is also negligible.

Muslim representation is lower than the total candidates and female representation is less than half of males representation.

Table-7
Muslims Representation in Professional Courses

Qualification Total in Tripura Muslim
Male Female Total Male Female Total
BE Civil 293 77 370 1 0 1
BE Electrica 227 118 345 3 0 3
BE Mechani 253 45 298 2 0 2
PG civil 17 3 20 0 0 0
PG Electrica 9 3 12 0 0 0
PG Mechani 7 0 7 0 0 0
Diplo Civil 423 40 463 6 0 6
Diplo Electri 247 39 286 5 0 5
Diplo Mech 345 15 360 3 0 3
ITI 1845 158 2003 8 0 8
MBBS 47 25 72 0 0 0
BDS 42 19 61 0 0 0
Vetenary 23 11 34 0 0 0
BAMS 37 10 47 2 0 2
BHMS 49 32 81 1 0 1
Agri BSc 77 24 101 0 1 1
Agri MSc 31 15 46 0 0 0
Lawyer 124 30 154 0 0 0
BBA 118 36 54 0 1 1
BCA 139 44 183 1 0 1
MBA 109 28 137 1 0 1
MCA 41 21 62 1 0 1
Chemical eng 0 1 1 0 0 0
Total 4503 794 5197 34 2 36

Source – SPIO, Employment Exchange, 2011

It means that girls are not getting sufficient education and opportunities in the society.
Muslims female literacy is lesser than the male literacy rate. In rural area, the number is more pitiable.

Table-8
Literacy among the Muslims in rural and urban areas

Total Muslim Population Literate % Male % Female %
Total 254442 125973 49.50951 74356 59.02535 51617 40.97465
Rural 236748 115605 48.8304 68369 59.14018 47236 40.85982
Urban 17694 10368 58.59613 5987 57.74498 4381 42.25502

source-Census 2001

Economic Scenario
Tripura being a hilly state, the cultivated area is not much compared to the other states of India. There are no huge industries where people would get employment opportunities and other economic facilities. Most of the people have to depend on govt. services. Many of them are depending on agriculture, forest like rubber plantation, small business, export, import, daily labour etc. Families belonging to Below Poverty Line in Tripura among the Muslims are more (34.44%) than the National Average of (26.10%).

Figure -6

It is found in both the blocks that total number of among the Muslim community is 39% and APL listed is 61%.

The numbers of educated unemployed among the Muslims girls are very low.

Table-9
Unemployment among the Muslims

UR  Male Female Total
175224 115012 290236
Muslim Male Female Total
14846 5693 20539

Source-employment exchange report, 2012

Even their number is microscopic in the field of engineering, medical and other professional fields.

  1. Tripura state has sent 14 IAS officers to Indian administration, serving across the country, out of which none was Muslims. There are 4 TCS officer and one TPS officer of Muslim community in Tripura.

Figure-7

Figure-8

Figure-9

Source-Surveyed by most of the govt. departments

The figure shows the total employment situation of the Muslims of Tripura. Muslim’s share in govt. services is found only 2.69% where their population share is almost 9% in Tripura.

Business

  • In Business: (Sonamura) above 76% Muslims around the market
  • It is seen that out of 102 medicine sellers, only 18 belongs to Muslims. Out of 95 pharmacists, the number of Muslims is 18.
  • Out of 82 stalls at Dainik bazaar, Muslims stalls are 10. In the main market, out of 108 stalls, 36 belong to Muslims. In case of small business, out of 410 stalls, Muslims have 125. Out of 36 fisheries, the number of Muslims is 5. However, Muslims have 26.28% share in business.
  • Muslims’ share in other fields under those villages are shown below-
  • In govt. services 2.5%
  • In foreign countries 640
  • Other states 285
  • Driving profession-125
  • Car business-128

In Kamalpur market the Muslims have low share in the business. Through the research it was seen that out of 982 stalls, Muslims have only four stalls and in Manikbhander market, out of 495 stalls, Muslims have 12 stalls. It shows their participation in business is very low. Out of 9% population, 1.5% has been staying outside the state.

  • Loan sanctioned for Muslims community through banks-

UBI Tripura
Total-274989.11
Muslims-15384.35
% of Muslims- 5.95%
Gramin Bank Tripura
Total-118934
Muslims-1367
% of Muslims- 1.14%

Muslim Women’s backwardness

It is seen in the above discussion that the position of Muslim women is negligible in respect of males of this community. In the field of education, employment, politics and working participation, Muslim women reside at the level of ground. As per census data literacy rate is not so bad among female population of Tripura in comparison with Indian standard. But lower in comparison within Tripura. Girls’ position in colleges is less than 1.5% where boys’ position is 3.6%. In professional colleges, the number of Muslims participation is very low or 1.04% and girl’s position is 0.3% of the total.

Muslims of Tripura are generally spread throughout the state. There are variations in terms of language, cultural activities, and ethnic differentiations. So due to these diversities, they have never been able to integrate themselves as a united community.

Recently, 124 villages and 27 wards of Nagar Panchayet have been re-identified where 20% and more minority population reside for multi-purpose development.

Election Commission of Tripura reported that presently (2013) there are no candidates in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha from Muslim community and only 2 male candidates are in the Vidhan Sabha from the minority Muslims. Since the formation of this state, no women candidate from the Muslim community elected as MP or MLA.

The Muslim participation in assembly election from 1952 to 2013 is 43 from Congress, 31 from CPI (M) and 74 from others or neutral party.

  • Total contesting candidates from Muslims (assembly election)

Table -10

Year Congress CPIM Others
1952 5 3 10
1957 6 2 9
1962 4 4 5
1967 3 1 1
1972 3 2 4
1977 3 3 8
1981 1
1983 3 2 3
1988 2 2 2
1993 2 2 8
1998 3 2 3
2003 2 3 8
2008 3 2 13
2013 3 3
 total 43 31  74

Source- Magazine of Tripura Darphan, 2013

The Muslim participation in different blocks are not equal to their population. In some blocks, it is seen that Muslims participation is nil.

Table-11
Panchayet (Election, 2009, Contesting Candidate)

Gram Panchayet Election, 2009
23 Nos. Block No. of GP NO. of Contesting Candidate NO. of Muslims % of Muslims Male Female
Total 511 10899 1276 11.7 712 398

Source-Election Commission, Directorate of Panchayet, Govt. of Tripura
Women are getting more participation opportunity to contest as 1/3rd has been reserved for them.

Table -12
Panchayet (Contesting Candidates, 2009 under three tiers)

Total Contesting Candidates, 2009
Sl No Name of Bodies Total GP/PS/ZP Total Seats Total Contesting Candidates Total Women Candidates
1 Gram Panchayet 511 5295 10983 4060
2 Panchayet Amity 299 299 683 269
3 Zilla Parishad 82 82 208 54
Total 892 5676 11874 4383

Source-Election Commission, Directorate of Panchayet, Govt. of Tripura

Total Muslims contesting candidate in three tiers Panchayet is very low.

Table -13
Panchayet (Minority Muslims-contesting candidates, 2009)

Minority Muslims-contesting candidates from all party, 2009
Sl. No Name of the Bodies Total Muslims contesting candidate Male Female
1 Zilla Parishad 20 11 9
2 Panchayet Samity 65 43 22
3 Gram Panchayet 1276 712 398
Total 1361 766 429

Source-Election Commission, Directorate of Panchayet, Govt. of Tripura

Muslims holding the office of Pradhan in Three-tier Panchayet in Tripura is lower than the other communities.

Figure-11

It is clear that Muslims women participation in the decision making bodies is lower than Muslims male.

Table-14

Muslim Pradhan and UpaPradhan Panchayet Election, 2009

Pradhan Upa Pradhan
Total Male Female Total Male Female
41 28 13 85 88 07

Source-Election commission, Directorate of Panchayet, govt. of Tripura
`
Less number of participation of Muslims in Panchayet and women’s poor condition gallantly exemplify that Muslims are victimized politically.

Table no. 15
Muslims Members in Three-tier Panchayet (1994, 1998, 2004)

Source-Election Commission, Directorate of Panchayet, Govt. of Tripura

Muslim Representatives for Gram Panchayet under few Blocks shows that Muslims women representation is very low.

Table no-16
Muslim Representatives for Gram Panchayet under few Blocks

Sl.No.. Name of the Block Women Elected Muslim Women & % of total women
1 Dukli 17 04    (23.52)
2 Jirania 93 07    (7.53)
3 Bishalgarh 32 14     (43.75)
4 Kathalia 21 13   (61.90)
5 Boxonagar 23 19     (82.61)
6 Melaghar 23 17   (73.91)
Total in West district 160 123    (76.87)
1 Gournagar 55 28    (50.91)
2 Salema 11 04   (36.36)
3 Panisagar 15 05   (33.33)
4 Kadamtala 61 26  (42.62)
Total in North district 142 63    (43.37)
1 Matabari 14 07   (50.00)
2 Kakraban 08 02   (25.00)
3 Rajnagar 03 01   (33.33)
Total in South district 25 10    (40.00)

Source-Election Commission, Directorate of Panchayet, Govt. of Tripura
In State Legislative Assembly (Tripura) (1952—2003), it was seen that women position was very poor.

Table -17
Representation of Women in the State Legislative Assembly (Tripura) (1952—2003)

Year Legislative Assembly Number of Seats Number of elected women Percentage to the total
1952 Electoral College 30 1 3.3
1952 Tripura Regional Council 30
1962 Tripura Regional Council 30 1 3.3
1967 State Legislature 30
1972 State Legislature 60 2 3.3
1977 State Legislature 60 1 1.6
1983 State Legislature 60 3 5.00
1988 State Legislature 60 2 3.2
1993 State Legislature 60 3 5.00
1998 State Legislature 60 2 3.2
2003 State Legislature 60 1 1.6

Source: State Election Department, Agartala
A survey on Muslim politicians like MLA, MP, Panchayet and Nagar Panchayet members show their level of education.

Figure-12

Political participation needs good education to understand the policy and its necessity. Education makes people conscious about their rights and duties. The policy makers and the leaders who take part in the decision making should be qualified. But among the Muslims leaders in Tripura, it is seen that only a few of them are high qualified. It deprives Muslims from gaining opportunities favorable to them both at national and local level.

Conclusion

The above discussion give a clear picture of the Muslims community of Tripura. Demographic change affected the progress of Muslims in Tripura. Muslims of Tripura are backward and their backwardness is found in social, political, cultural and economic fields. Only govt. initiatives cannot make remedial measures for their condition. If the whole community cannot change their own condition with the govt. steps, their condition will remain unchanged. Muslim bureaucrats and high officials should come forward to support and give assistance to the backward Muslims. State Govt. and Central Govt. should implement those policies and programmes as suggested by Sachar Committee, Ranganath Misra Committee and Gopal Singh Committee.

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Muslims in Indian Administration : Towards Inclusion, By Dr Shahid Iqbal Choudhary-www.google.com (22-01-2014)

Ranganath Misra Commission Report

Roy, Bidhan, “Agartala Ekattuor”(2013)(Bengali), Parijat Prakashani, Dhaka-1100, p.11

Roy, Bidhan, “Agartala Ekattuor”(2013)(Bengali), Parijat Prakashani, Dhaka-1100, p.11

A Research Journal of South Asian Studies Vol. 27, No. 1, January-June 2012, p.2

Ranganath Misra Committee report

The Economist Newspaper , Aug 24th 2012, 8:19 by S.B. | KOKRAJHAR AND DHUBRI

Manas Paul, The Eyewitness: Tales from Tripura’s Ethnic Conflict, Lancer Publishers,
New Delhi, 2009, p. 25 as cited in Changing Mentality of the Bengalee  Refugees: The Story of Tripura (1946-1971)   By  Anindita Ghoshal Assistant Prof. in History, Rishi Bankim Chandra College, Naihati   Refugee Watch, 39 & 40, June and December 2012

As declared by the Tripura Durbar, a tenant who accepted a lease for reclamation of hilly lands by clearing jungles got remission of rent at least for three years from the date of lease is called jangal-abadi system.

Changing Mentality of the Bengalee  Refugees: The Story of Tripura (1946-1971)   By  Anindita Ghoshal Assistant Prof. in History, Rishi Bankim Chandra College, Naihati   Refugee Watch, 39 & 40, June and December 2012

Landless labourers who used to work in khas lands owned by the royal family of
Tripura  in  the  zamindari  of  Chakla  Roshanabad  for  decades.  Though  they  were
share croppers, the maharajas of Tripura often treated them as their own subjects,
whom they could not evict.

Interview with Jiten Pal in Agartala on 24 February 2012 as cited in Changing Mentality of the Bengalee  Refugees: The Story of Tripura (1946-1971)   By  Anindita Ghoshal Assistant Prof. in History, Rishi Bankim Chandra College, Naihati   Refugee Watch, 39 & 40, June and December 2012

B.G.  Verghese,  India’s  North  East  Resurgent:  Ethnicity,  Insurgency,  Governance, Development, Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1996, pp. 167-169

File No. F. 3(1)/57 ADM, Year-1957, Rehabilitation Department, Tripura State Archives as cited in Changing Mentality of the Bengalee  Refugees: The Story of Tripura (1946-1971)   By  Anindita Ghoshal Assistant Prof. in History, Rishi Bankim Chandra College, Naihati   Refugee Watch, 39 & 40, June and December 2012

Jagadis Gan-Chaudhuri, A Political History of Tripura, Inter-India Publications, New
Delhi, 1985, p. 54

Sibopada De, Illegal Migrations and the North East: A Study of Migrants from Bangladesh,
Anamika Publishers, New Delhi, 2005, p. 107

The Pakistan Observer, 14 May 1964

Census Bibarani 1931 AD, Tripura Darpan 15th Nov. 2003

Anjali Chakraborty, “Status of Muslim women in Tripura”, an unpublished thesis.

Colved Prakash, ‘Encyclopedia of North East India’, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, vol.V., p.2186

Suchintya Bhattacharya, Genesis of Tribal Extremism in Tripura, New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 1991, p. 54.

Kailash Chandra Singha, Rajmala, Akhswar Publications, p.7

Ibid,p.8

W.W.Hunter “Statistical Account of Bengals” part-VI, p-482

Report of Tripura Minorities Co-Operative Development Corporation Limited

Source-Status of Women in Tripura by-Mr. Ratan Chakraborty and Ms. Minakshi Sen Bandyopadhyay www.google.com-30-11-2013

Mijanur Rahaman, Rahaman is Research Scholar, Department of Political Science, Tripura University, Tripura. Email: rahaman.mizan284@gmail.com